Can elements have more than 8 valence electrons?
Unlike atoms from periods one and two that only have the s and p orbitals (total of 8 valence electrons), atoms like phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine can have more than 8 electrons because they are not restricted to the s and p orbitals and have a d orbital for additional electrons needed for bonding.
Can an element have 9 valence electrons?
The number of valence electrons increases from top to bottom within each group. All of the elements in group 9 have nine valence electrons. Elements with the most valence electrons are in group 18.
What does 8 valence electrons mean?
The octet rule refers to the tendency of atoms to prefer to have eight electrons in the valence shell. When atoms have fewer than eight electrons, they tend to react and form more stable compounds.
What is the maximum number of valence?
The maximum number of electrons that can occupy the outermost energy level or valence shell of a Representative Element is eight (the exception is helium, which also exhibits a filled valence shell, but ony it requires only 2 electrons).
Why do atoms always want 8 valence electrons?
The Significance of “8” in Chemistry The rule of 8 or the Octet rule is the tendency of atoms to have eight electrons in their valence shell. Eight electrons in this final shell allow atoms to be stable and non-reactive. Atoms tend to be reactive when their valence shell (or outermost shell) is incomplete.
What group has 4 valence electrons?
The main group number for an element can be found from its column on the periodic table. For example, carbon is in group 4 and has 4 valence electrons. Oxygen is in group 6 and has 6 valence electrons.
How to tell how many valence electrons?
If you look at the periodic table and at the period numbers, that is the number of valence electrons. If the number is larger than 10, subtract 10 so you get two valence electrons. Example: Oxygen is in the 16th period. If we subtract 10 from 16, we get 6; therefore, oxygen has six valence electrons.
Which elements have only one valence electron?
Hydrogen, Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, and Francium are elements that have only one valence electron.
How many valence electrons does group 16 have?
Group 2: 2 valence electrons; Group 13: 3 valence electrons; Group 14: 4 valence electrons; Group 15: 5 valence electrons; Group 16: 6 valence electrons; Group 17: 7 valence electrons; Group 18: 8 valence electrons (except for helium, which has 2) In our example, since carbon is in group 14, we can say that one atom of carbon has four valence electrons.