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How does genetic polymorphism affects drug metabolism?

How does genetic polymorphism affects drug metabolism?

One of the major causes of interindividual variation of drug effects is genetic variation of drug metabolism. Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes give rise to distinct subgroups in the population that differ in their ability to perform certain drug biotransformation reactions.

How genetic variations can affect the metabolism of a drug?

Genetic polymorphisms have been identified for many drug-metabolizing enzymes, including the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes. This gives rise to distinct population phenotypes of persons who have metabolism capabilities ranging from extremely poor to extremely fast.

What are the factors affecting drug metabolism?

Physiological factors that can influence drug metabolism include age, individual variation (e.g., pharmacogenetics), enterohepatic circulation, nutrition, intestinal flora, or sex differences. In general, drugs are metabolized more slowly in fetal, neonatal and elderly humans and animals than in adults.

How genetic factors affect pharmacokinetics?

Genetic mutations in genes can affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs. Altered metabolism of drugs can result in a decreased therapeutic response and increased toxicity. Personalized medicine requires detailed analyses of the patient’s genome and phenotypic consequences.

What is genetic polymorphism examples?

All the types of blood groups are the example of genetic polymorphism, such as the ABO blood group system. We see this system having more than two morphs: A, B, AB, and O are the variants present in the entire human population, but these groups vary in proportion in different parts of the world.

Which three genetic variations in enzymes are most often linked to differences in drug metabolism?

Among them, CYP2C9*2 (R144C) and CYP2C9*3 (I359L) are the most common variants associated with highly-reduced CYP2C9 enzymatic activities in comparison with the wild-type allele (CYP2C9*1) [65].

What are the factors influencing xenobiotic metabolism?

Environmental influences include diet, stress, medication, lifestyle, and disease. Genetic variation includes gender, epigenetics, and polymorphisms in genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing components such as Phase I and II enzymes, transporters, receptors, and ion channels.

What organ is most commonly responsible for the excretion of medication from the body?

Although many sites of metabolism and excretion exist, the chief organ of metabolism is the liver, while the organ primarily tasked with excretion is the kidney. Any significant dysfunction in either organ can result in the accumulation of the drug or its metabolites in toxic concentrations.

Which of the following is an example of polymorphism in humans?

Blood Groups. All the types of blood groups are the example of genetic polymorphism, such as the ABO blood group system. We see this system having more than two morphs: A, B, AB, and O are the variants present in the entire human population, but these groups vary in proportion in different parts of the world.

Can polymorphisms cause disease?

A polymorphic variant of a gene can lead to the abnormal expression or to the production of an abnormal form of the protein; this abnormality may cause or be associated with disease.